Internal usage of TEMPDB by SQL Server DB engine

This post is actually a continuation post for TEMPDB – the most important system database in SQL Server which trying to cover one of the important usage of TEMPDB in SQL Server. Some operations in SQL Server uses TEMPDB internally to improve the performance of the operations. It may not be fully aware for the users, but we can understand the usage of tempdb using the below query.

--Query to understand the internal usage of TEMPDB
			mixed_extent_page_count)*8/1024. ,
unallocated_extent_MB =unallocated_extent_page_count*8/1024., 
internal_object_reserved_MB =internal_object_reserved_page_count*8/1024.
from sys.dm_db_file_space_usage

Few of operations as below:


DBCC CHECKDB/CHECKALLOC are using TEMPDB space for creating internal database snapshot to perform the operation. This is to efficiently avoid the locking behavior on database to obtain the consistency check. DBCC CHECKDB and CHECKALLOC has an option to estimate the usage of TEMPDB by providing ESTIMATEONLY option as below. Please note, this is an estimated value, may not be the correct one, however, this can be a good indication to estimate the space required for the operation. This can be used to make sure the TEMPDB drive has enough space to run on DBCC operations for large databases.

2. SORT operations can spill over to TEMPDB

When a query is executed, SQL optimizer will choose the plan already created if prsent or will create a new plan based on cost based algorithms. When optimizer creates a plan, SQL optimizer/relational engine will identify the right operator for the plan to execute the queries and it estimates the memory required to execute the query. This plan will be used for further execution. If the estimation is not happening correctly because of wrong statistics or parameters used while creating the plan is returning less number of records, the estimated number of records will be deviating from the actual number of records while executing the query. In such scenario, the memory granted for the execution may not be sufficient for the execution.

If SORT operator needs more memory to sort the data , other words, the memory granted is not sufficient to do the sorting, it will spill over to TEMPDB. This will have a performance impact for the query execution. The spill over to TEMPDB can be observed in the profiler as SORT warnings(below).

In the above snapshot, we can see Sort warnings in profiler with Event Subclass as single or multiple. Whenever the sort operation spills to tempdb, SQL Server raises the ‘Sort Warnings’ event and it takes single or multiple passes to tempdb.

As mentioned, Sort warnings or spilling to TempDB will have some detrimental impact on the query performance, we need to identify those queries and avoid if possible. Through profiler, we may not understand the query is being caused the Sort Warnings, but, we need to identify from the cached plan or by setting up Extended events to capture the Sort warnings.

Once we identified the query caused Sort Warning, the easiest solution would be re-write the query in a manner to avoid the sorting. I have seen queries with CTE using the ORDER BY even though the order by is not required specifically. Try to use ORDER BY genuinely to avoid performance issues. At the same time, it may not be easy for all cases to avoid the ORDER BY completely. Similar scenario, we may need to evaluate adding a supporting index or modify the existing indexes to avoid, but again, this needs more careful and clear understanding of code and index usage. If you are well aware of the reason for Sort warnings are due to incorrect statistics, you can update the stats or use the solutions to avoid the parameter sniffing(As the objective of this post is not going to explain the parameter sniffing, this post does not cover the topic now.).

3. Worktables/intermediate temp objects due to spooling/hash joins/aggregate Operations

Spools are special operators created by SQL optimizer to improve the performance of a query. A spool operator is not an independent operator,but a supporting operator for another operator like clustered index scan, Table scan or even Constant scan. A spool operator reads and stores intermediate “operated” data into TEMPDB from another operator, there by, increasing the performance of the query.

In the below snapshot, we can observe that the spool operator stores the data from the input, here its nothing but constant scan into a temporary tables to avoid multiple rewinds.

There are totally five types of spool operators – Eager, Lazy, Table, RowCount and Non-Clustered Index spools. All spool operators will store the data into TEMPDB, however, it may be different the way it behaves. Please explore further on the topic to know more details.

Hope you enjoyed this post, please post your feedback/thoughts in the comments.


SQL Server detected a logical consistency-based I/O error: incorrect checksum

Recently, we encountered an issue with a restored database stating the below error message:

Msg 824, Level 24, State 2, Line 28
SQL Server detected a logical consistency-based I/O error: incorrect checksum (expected: 0xafbb455a; actual: 0xaf9a455a).
It occurred during a read of page (1:310732) in database ID 161 at offset 0x00000097b98000 in file ‘F:\DATA1\database.MDF’.
Additional messages in the SQL Server error log or system event log may provide more detail.
This is a severe error condition that threatens database integrity and must be corrected immediately.
Complete a full database consistency check (DBCC CHECKDB).
This error can be caused by many factors; for more information, see SQL Server Books Online.

As the error message is pretty straight forward, a clear issue with some consistency (I/O error). And this has been even confirmed by running a DBCC CHECKDB. To resolve the issue, we decided to go with REPAIR_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS option as this is a lower environment issue. I personally do not recommend to use this option for production databases as there is a chance of data loss.

alter database <database>  SET single_user with rollback immediate 
dbcc checkdb('<database>',REPAIR_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS)
alter database <database>  SET multi_user with rollback immediate 

Before we do this option, just curious to understand the object being corrupted from the error message.


The below code will give you information on the objects. Please note the below is supported only from SQL 2012 and later versions. For earlier version, you need to use DBCC PAGE commands.

SELECT DB_NAME(susp.database_id) DatabaseName,
OBJECT_SCHEMA_NAME(ind.object_id, ind.database_id) ObjectSchemaName,
OBJECT_NAME(ind.object_id, ind.database_id) ObjectName
FROM msdb.dbo.suspect_pages susp
CROSS APPLY SYS.DM_DB_DATABASE_PAGE_ALLOCATIONS(susp.database_id,null,null,null,null) ind
WHERE allocated_page_file_id = susp.file_id
AND allocated_page_page_id = susp.page_id

Later, we identified the issue is associated with backup and we took a fresh backup of the database and restored. It worked like a treat!!!